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Endotracheal tubes and fluid aspiration: An in vitro evaluation of new cuff technologies

Mariyaselvam, Maryanne Z, Marsh, Lucy, Bamford, Sarah, Smith, Ann, Wise, Matthew and Williams, David 2017. Endotracheal tubes and fluid aspiration: An in vitro evaluation of new cuff technologies. BMC Anesthesiology 17 , 36. 10.1186/s12871-017-0328-0

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Abstract

Background Aspiration of subglottic secretions past the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff is a prerequisite for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) ETTs reduce aspiration of subglottic secretions and have demonstrated lower VAP rates. We compared the performance of seven SSD ETTs against a non-SSD ETT in preventing aspiration below inflated cuffs. Methods ETTs were positioned vertically in 2 cm diameter cylinders. Four ml of a standard microbial suspension was added above inflated cuffs. After 1 h, aspiration was measured and ETTs demonstrating no leakage were subjected to rotational movement and evaluation over 24 h. Collected aspirated fluid was used to inoculate agar media and incubated aerobically at 37 °C for 24 h. The aspiration rate, volume and number of microorganisms that leaked past the cuff was measured. Experiments were repeated (×10) for each type of ETT, with new ETTs used for each repeat. Best performing ETTs were then tested in five different cylinder diameters (1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4 cm). Experiments were repeated as above using sterile water. Volume and time taken for aspiration past the cuff was measured. Experiments were repeated (×10) for each type of ETT. Results were analysed using non-parametric tests for repeated measures. Results The PneuX ETT prevented aspiration past the cuff in all experiments. All other ETTs allowed aspiration, with considerable variability in performance. The PneuX ETT was statistically superior in reducing aspiration compared to the SealGuard (p < 0.009), KimVent (p < 0.002), TaperGuard (p < 0.004), Lanz (p < 0.001), ISIS (p < 0.001), SACETT (p < 0.001) and Soft Seal (p < 0.001) ETTs. Of the 4 ETTs tested in differing cylinder sizes, the PneuX significantly reduced aspiration across the range of diameters compared to the SealGuard (p < 0.0001), TaperGuard (p < 0.0001) and KimVent (p < 0.0001) ETTs. Conclusions ETTs showed substantial variation in fluid aspiration, relating to cuff material and design. Variability in performance was likely due to the random manner in which involutional folds form in the inflated ETT cuff. The PneuX ETT was the only ETT able to consistently prevent aspiration past the cuff in all experiments.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Uncontrolled Keywords: Ventilator-associated pneumonia – Nosocomial pneumonia – Endotracheal tube cuff – Endotracheal tube – Pulmonary aspiration
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1471-2253
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 March 2017
Date of Acceptance: 20 February 2017
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2018 21:15
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/98698

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