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Launching cosmic-ray-driven outflows from the magnetized interstellar medium

Girichidis, Philipp, Naab, Thorsten, Walch, Stefanie, Hanasz, Michal, Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, Ostriker, Jeremiah P., Gatto, Andrea, Peters, Thomas, Wünsch, Richard, Glover, Simon C. O., Klessen, Ralf S., Clark, Paul C. and Baczynski, Christian 2016. Launching cosmic-ray-driven outflows from the magnetized interstellar medium. Astrophysical Journal Letters 816 (2) , L19. 10.3847/2041-8205/816/2/L19

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Abstract

We present a hydrodynamical simulation of the turbulent, magnetized, supernova (SN)-driven interstellar medium (ISM) in a stratified box that dynamically couples the injection and evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) and a self-consistent evolution of the chemical composition. CRs are treated as a relativistic fluid in the advection–diffusion approximation. The thermodynamic evolution of the gas is computed using a chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, CO, C+, and free electrons and includes (self-)shielding of the gas and dust. We find that CRs perceptibly thicken the disk with the heights of 90% (70%) enclosed mass reaching $\gtrsim 1.5\;\mathrm{kpc}$ ($\gtrsim 0.2\;\mathrm{kpc}$). The simulations indicate that CRs alone can launch and sustain strong outflows of atomic and ionized gas with mass loading factors of order unity, even in solar neighborhood conditions and with a CR energy injection per SN of ${10}^{50}\;\mathrm{erg}$, 10% of the fiducial thermal energy of an SN. The CR-driven outflows have moderate launching velocities close to the midplane ($\lesssim 100\;\mathrm{km}\;{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$) and are denser (ρ ~ 10−24–10−26 g cm−3), smoother, and colder than the (thermal) SN-driven winds. The simulations support the importance of CRs for setting the vertical structure of the disk as well as the driving of winds.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
ISSN: 2041-8205
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 2 July 2020
Date of Acceptance: 10 December 2015
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2020 09:45
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/89653

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