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A complement C5 gene mutation, c.754G>A:p.A252T, is common in the Western Cape, South Africa and found to be homozygous in seven percent of Black African meningococcal disease cases

Owen, E. Patricia, Würzner, Reinhard, Leisegang, Felicity, Rizkallah, Pierre, Whitelaw, Andrew, Simpson, John, Thomas, Andrew David, Harris, Claire Louise, Giles, Joanna L., Hellerud, Bernt C., Mollnes, Tom E., Morgan, Bryan Paul, Potter, Paul C. and Orren, Ann 2015. A complement C5 gene mutation, c.754G>A:p.A252T, is common in the Western Cape, South Africa and found to be homozygous in seven percent of Black African meningococcal disease cases. Molecular Immunology 64 (1) , pp. 170-176. 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.11.010

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Abstract

Patients with genetically determined deficiency of complement component 5 are usually diagnosed because of recurrent invasive Neisseria meningitidis infections. Approximately 40 individual cases have been diagnosed worldwide. Nevertheless, reports of the responsible genetic defects have been sporadic, and we know of no previous reports of C5 deficiency being associated with a number of independent meningococcal disease cases in particular communities. Here we describe C5 deficiency in seven unrelated Western Cape, South African families. Three different C5 mutations c.55C>T:p.Q19X, c.754G>A:p.A252T and c.4426C>T:p.R1476X were diagnosed in index cases from two families who had both presented with recurrent meningococcal disease. p.Q19X and p.R1476X have already been described in North American Black families and more recently p.Q19X in a Saudi family. However, p.A252T was only reported in SNP databases and was not associated with disease until the present study was undertaken in the Western Cape, South Africa. We tested for p.A252T in 140 patients presenting with meningococcal disease in the Cape Town area, and found seven individuals in five families who were homozygous for the mutation p.A252T. Very low serum C5 protein levels (0.1–4%) and correspondingly low in vitro functional activity were found in all homozygous individuals. Allele frequencies of p.A252T in the Black African and Cape Coloured communities were 3% and 0.66% and estimated homozygosities are 1/1100 and 1/22,500 respectively. In 2012 we reported association between p.A252T and meningococcal disease. Molecular modelling of p.A252T has indicated an area of molecular stress in the C5 molecule which may provide a mechanism for the very low level in the circulation. This report includes seven affected families indicating that C5D is not rare in South Africa.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Complement C5 deficiency; Meningococcal disease; Black African
Publisher: National Institute of Health
ISSN: 0161-5890
Last Modified: 25 Dec 2017 21:18
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/84872

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