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The oxidative potential of PM10 from coal, briquettes and wood charcoal burnt in an experimental domestic stove

Shao, Longyi, Hou, Cong, Geng, Chunmei, Liu, Junxia, Hu, Ying, Wang, Jing, Jones, Timothy Peter, Zhao, Chengmei and Berube, Kelly Ann 2016. The oxidative potential of PM10 from coal, briquettes and wood charcoal burnt in an experimental domestic stove. Atmospheric Environment 127 , pp. 372-381. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.12.007

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Abstract

Coal contains many potentially harmful trace elements. Coal combustion in unvented stoves, which is common in most parts of rural China, can release harmful emissions into the air that when inhaled cause health issues. However, few studies have dealt specifically with the toxicological mechanisms of the particulate matter (PM) released by coal and other solid fuel combustion. In this paper, PM10 particles that were generated during laboratory stove combustion of raw powdered coal, clay-mixed honeycomb briquettes, and wood charcoal were analysed for morphology, trace element compositions, and toxicity as represented by oxidative DNA damage. The analyses included Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA). Gravimetric analysis indicated that the equivalent mass concentration of PM10 emitted by burning raw powdered coal was higher than that derived by burning honeycomb briquette. FESEM observation revealed that the coal burning-derived PM10 particles were mainly soot aggregates. The PSA results showed that the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes had a higher oxidative capacity than that from burning raw powdered coal and wood charcoal. It is also demonstrated that the oxidative capacity of the whole particle suspensions were similar to those of the water soluble fractions; indicating that the DNA damage induced by coal burning-derived PM10 were mainly a result of the water-soluble fraction. An ICP-MS analysis revealed that the amount of total analysed water-soluble elements in the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes was higher than that in PM produced by burning raw powdered coal, and both were higher than PM from burning wood charcoal. The total analysed water-soluble elements in these coal burning-derived PM10 samples had a significantly positive correlation with the level of DNA damage; indicating that the oxidative capacity of the coal burning-derived PM10 was mainly sourced from the water soluble elements. The water-soluble As, Cd, Ge, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn showed the highest correlation with the oxidative potential, implying that these elements in their water soluble states were the primary responsible factor for the plasmid DNA damage. The exposure risk was further assessed using the particle mass concentrations multiplied by the percent of DNA damage under the dose of 500 μg ml−1. The results revealed that the exposure risk of burning raw powdered coal was much higher than that of burning honeycomb briquette.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Earth and Ocean Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1352-2310
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 1 December 2015
Last Modified: 13 May 2019 14:03
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/84434

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