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Quercetin derivatives as novel antihypertensive agents: Synthesis and physiological characterization

Grande, Fedora, Parisi, Ortensia I., Mordocco, Roberta A., Rocca, Carmine, Puoci, Francesco, Scrivano, Luca, Quintieri, Anna M., Cantafio, Patrizia, Ferla, Salvatore, Brancale, Andrea, Saturnino, Carmela, Cerra, Maria C., Sinicropi, Maria S. and Angelone, Tommaso 2016. Quercetin derivatives as novel antihypertensive agents: Synthesis and physiological characterization. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 82 , pp. 161-170. 10.1016/j.ejps.2015.11.021

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Abstract

The antihypertensive flavonol quercetin (Q1) is endowed with a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemic damage. Q1 inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme activity, improves vascular relaxation, and decreases oxidative stress and gene expression. However, the clinical application of this flavonol is limited by its poor bioavailability and low stability in aqueous medium. In the aim to overcome these drawbacks and preserve the cardioprotective effects of quercetin, the present study reports on the preparation of five different Q1 analogs, in which all OH groups were replaced by hydrophobic functional moieties. Q1 derivatives have been synthesized by optimizing previously reported procedures and analyzed by spectroscopic analysis. The cardiovascular properties of the obtained compounds were also investigated in order to evaluate whether chemical modification affects their biological efficacy. The interaction with β-adrenergic receptors was evaluated by molecular docking and the cardiovascular efficacy was investigated on the ex vivo Langendorff perfused rat heart. Furthermore, the bioavailability and the antihypertensive properties of the most active derivative were evaluated by in vitro studies and in vivo administration (1 month) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), respectively. Among all studied Q1 derivatives, only the ethyl derivative reduced left ventricular pressure (at 10− 8 M ÷ 10− 6 M doses) and improved relaxation and coronary dilation. NOSs inhibition by L-NAME abolished inotropism, lusitropism and coronary effects. Chronic administration of high doses of this compound on SHR reduced systolic and diastolic pressure. Differently, the acetyl derivative induced negative inotropism and lusitropism (at 10− 10 M and 10− 8 ÷ 10− 6 M doses), without affecting coronary pressure. Accordingly, docking studies suggested that these compounds bind both β1/β2-adrenergic receptors. Taking into consideration all the obtained results, the replacement of OH with ethyl groups seems to improve Q1 bioavailability and stability; therefore, the ethyl derivative could represent a good candidate for clinical use in hypertension.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Uncontrolled Keywords: Quercetin; Heart; Hypertension; Nitric oxide
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0928-0987
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 25 November 2015
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2019 11:12
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/84170

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