Sustainable design of sports stadiums: case study analysis of stadiums for the Olympic Games 2000 in Sydney, 2004 in Athens and 2008 in Beijing.
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Sports stadiums have a considerable impact on the urban, environmental and social context. In particular, where several new stadiums are built within the same city for a single mega-event like the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games or Soccer World Cup the implications are significantly higher. Therefore the requirements for operation of each stadium after the mega-event are of great importance to ensure sustainable integration into the urban, environmental and social context as well as maximized utilization on a long-term basis. In the first part of this thesis a review of the subject is presented. A brief history of the development of stadium design in the Olympic context, evolving requirements for staging Olympic Summer Games, the structure of organizations involved, existing literature research and certification methods are summarized. In the second part the methodology and development of the bespoke research tool based on existing certification systems such as BREEAM, LEED and DGNB is described. Subsequently, case studies for three different stadium types (Olympic Stadium, Indoor Stadium and Football Stadium) used for the Olympic Summer Games in Sydney (2000), Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) are analysed based on literature research, field surveys and interviews. The comparative assessment of each stadium type is conducted with an evaluation matrix in three denominations: urban category, environmental category and social category. In each category two indicators with two respective parameters are evaluated based on a five-point score system. Subsequently the general applicability of the research tool is verified with an example appraisal of Wembley Stadium which was used for the Olympic Summer Games in London (2012). Conclusions are drawn in the third part of the thesis, separately for each of the three denominations urban category, environmental category and social category. In the urban category sports stadiums built on a site previously used for sports venues or adjacent to other existing venues are rated significantly higher, because existing sites are already integrated into the urban context and located in proximity to the city centre as well as other mixed-use areas resulting in synergy effects with extended catchment areas and good connectivity. In the environmental category sports stadiums are rated higher if specific requirements for operation of the sports stadium after the Olympic Games are already considered in the design to ensure maximised adaptability and flexibility. Dismantle of the overlay (tailor-made structures/installations required for staging the event) after the Olympic Games reduces energy consumption in subsequent operation. Overlay designed for permanent usage or reuse at a different venue further increases the level of sustainability. Usage of energy efficient systems with power generation and water conservation preserves resources. In the social category sports stadiums are rated higher if a balanced proportion of sport usage and other usages is achieved. The long-term utilization of a sports stadium correlates with the level of urban integration, urban context, building type and usage mix. Sports stadiums utilized by more than one home team and integration of other usages (e.g. retail, commercial, recreation, etc.) achieve a significantly higher level of utilization. The last chapter summarizes recommendations for stadium design in the Olympic context. To ensure a long-term utilization of each sports stadium after the Olympic Games it is suggested that applicant/candidate cities carry out comprehensive feasibility studies in collaboration with an operator to develop a bespoke project brief and business plan for operation of each venue at bidding stage. In order to enhance the existing knowledge base it is further recommended to collect and compare operational data (e.g. water, energy consumption etc.) from the different venues of the hosting cities to allow an independent assessment of the level of sustainability during long-term operation. Additional data to verify indicators relating to design efficiency such as average construction area per seat as well as dead loads of spectator stands and roof structures should be compared for establishment of benchmarks to verify the efficiency of the structural elements for an even more sustainable design of sports stadiums.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Subjects:||G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure
N Fine Arts > NA Architecture
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Sustainable Design Sports Stadiums Olympic Games Sydney Athens Beijing|
|Funders:||IOC/OCS Posgraduate Research Grant Programme 2007|
|Last Modified:||19 Mar 2016 23:54|
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