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Evolution of vitamin B2 biosynthesis. a novel class of riboflavin synthase in archaea

Fischer, Markus, Schott, Anne-Kathrin, Römisch, Werner, Ramsperger, Arne, Augustin, Martin, Fidler, Alexander, Bacher, Adelbert, Richter, Gerald, Huber, Robert and Eisenreich, Wolfgang 2004. Evolution of vitamin B2 biosynthesis. a novel class of riboflavin synthase in archaea. Journal of Molecular Biology 343 (1) , pp. 267-278. 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.08.016

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Abstract

The open reading frame MJ1184 of Methanococcus jannaschii with similarity to riboflavin synthase of Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus was cloned into an expression vector but was poorly expressed in an Escherichia coli host strain. However, a synthetic open reading frame that was optimized for expression in E. coli directed the synthesis of abundant amounts of a protein with an apparent subunit mass of 17.5 kDa. The protein was purified to apparent homogeneity. Hydrodynamic studies indicated a relative mass of 88 kDa suggesting a homopentamer structure. The enzyme was shown to catalyze the formation of riboflavin from 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine at a rate of 24 nmol mg−1 min−1 at 40 °C. Divalent metal ions, preferably manganese or magnesium, are required for maximum activity. In contrast to pentameric archaeal type riboflavin synthases, orthologs from plants, fungi and eubacteria are trimeric proteins characterized by an internal sequence repeat with similar folding patterns. In these organisms the reaction is achieved by binding the two substrate molecules in an antiparallel orientation. With the enzyme of M. jannaschii, 13C NMR spectroscopy with 13C-labeled 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine samples as substrates showed that the regiochemistry of the dismutation reaction is the same as observed in eubacteria and eukaryotes, however, in a non-pseudo-c2 symmetric environment. Whereas the riboflavin synthases of M. jannaschii and M. thermoautotrophicus are devoid of similarity with those of eubacteria and eukaryotes, they have significant sequence similarity with 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthases catalyzing the penultimate step of riboflavin biosynthesis. 6,7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase and the archaeal riboflavin synthase appear to have diverged early in the evolution of Archaea from a common ancestor. Some Archaea have eubacterial type riboflavin synthases which may have been acquired by lateral gene transfer.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0022-2836
Last Modified: 24 Jun 2017 11:00
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/70152

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