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Evidence for cryptic speciation in directly transmitted gyrodactylid parasites of Trinidadian guppies

Xavier, Raquel, Faria, Patricia J., Paladini, Giuseppe, van Oosterhout, Cock, Johnson, Mireille and Cable, Joanne 2015. Evidence for cryptic speciation in directly transmitted gyrodactylid parasites of Trinidadian guppies. PLoS ONE 10 (1) , e0117096. 10.1371/journal.pone.0117096

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Abstract

Cryptic species complexes are common among parasites, which tend to have large populations and are subject to rapid evolution. Such complexes may arise through host-parasite co-evolution and/or host switching. For parasites that reproduce directly on their host, there might be increased opportunities for sympatric speciation, either by exploiting different hosts or different micro-habitats within the same host. The genus Gyrodactylus is a specious group of viviparous monogeneans. These ectoparasites transfer between teleosts during social contact and cause significant host mortality. Their impact on the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), an iconic evolutionary and ecological model species, is well established and yet the population genetics and phylogenetics of these parasites remains understudied. Using mtDNA sequencing of the host and its parasites, we provide evidence of cryptic speciation in Gyrodactylus bullatarudis, G. poeciliae and G. turnbulli. For the COII gene, genetic divergence of lineages within each parasite species ranged between 5.7 and 17.2%, which is typical of the divergence observed between described species in this genus. Different lineages of G. turnbulli and G. poeciliae appear geographically isolated, which could imply allopatric speciation. In addition, for G. poeciliae, co-evolution with a different host species cannot be discarded due to its host range. This parasite was originally described on P. caucana, but for the first time here it is also recorded on the guppy. The two cryptic lineages of G. bullatarudis showed considerable geographic overlap. G. bullatarudis has a known wide host range and it can also utilize a killifish (Anablepsoides hartii) as a temporary host. This killifish is capable of migrating overland and it could act as a transmission vector between otherwise isolated populations. Additional genetic markers are needed to confirm the presence of these cryptic Gyrodactylus species complexes, potentially leading to more in-depth genetic, ecological and evolutionary analyses on this multi-host-parasite system.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Publisher: Public Library of Science
ISSN: 1932-6203
Funders: European Community Framework Programme 6 Marie Curie Host Fellowship, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Earth and Life Systems Alliance (ELSA)
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 29 Jun 2019 02:21
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/69905

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