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Novel strategies for enhancing tissue integration in cartilage repair

Davies, Lindsay Catrina, Caterson, Bruce and Duance, Victor Colin 2004. Novel strategies for enhancing tissue integration in cartilage repair. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 85 (1) , A21-A22. 10.1111/j.0959-9673.2004.369aa.x

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Abstract

Introduction Articular cartilage is unable to initiate a spontaneous repair response when injured due to its avascular and aneural properties. Within adult cartilage, chondrocytes are entrapped within an extensive extracellular matrix and are unable to migrate to sights of injury to regulate tissue repair. Injury to this tissue therefore inevitably leads to degeneration of the cartilage and the development of degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. The surgical technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) was developed for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects (Brittberg et al. 1994). Implantation of chondrocytes into the defect site repairs the injury site with a mixture of fibrocartilaginous and hyaline-like tissue that poorly integrates with the existing cartilage and frequently degenerates with time. In this current study, we have developed an in vitro model to investigate methods for enhancing this integration and the development of a more biomechanically stable repair tissue. Materials and methods Bovine articular cartilage explants from the metacarpalphalangeal joint were experimentally injured using a stainless steel trephine and cultured for a period of 28 days. Autologous chondrocytes in an agarose suspension were injected into the interface region at the injury site. Media was collected and analysed for proteoglycan and collagen content using the DMMB and hydroxyproline assays, respectively. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression was also analysed using zymography and an adapted collagen fibril assay. Results Morphological analyses indicate attempts at repair and integration within both control and experimental treatment groups, although the presence of autologous chondrocytes appeared to amplify this repair response. Although not statistically significant, considerable differences in proteoglycan release between injured explants and the intact control group were seen. Collagen release into the media was only seen at day 28 within experimental cultures. An up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was seen within the experimental cultures compared to the controls. Preliminary data also suggest up-regulation of collagenases in the experimental group when compared to controls. Discussion As seen with clinical ACT treatment, the presence of autologous chondrocytes appears to enhance repair and integration attempts; however, morphologically, this repair tissue appears to be fibrocartilaginous. Further analysis will establish whether the repair tissue is true hyaline cartilage and monitor the synthesis and turnover of macromolecules within the established culture system.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0959-9673
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 06:57
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/66406

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