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MRI in the detection of prostate cancer: combined apparent diffusion coefficient, metabolite ratio, and vascular parameters

Riches, Sophie F., Payne, Geoffrey S., Morgan, Veronica A., Sandhu, Samir, Fisher, Cyril, Germuska, Michael, Collins, David J., Thompson, Alan and deSouza, Nandita M. 2009. MRI in the detection of prostate cancer: combined apparent diffusion coefficient, metabolite ratio, and vascular parameters. American Journal of Roentgenology 193 (6) , pp. 1583-1591.

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OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare apparent diffusion coefficients, metabolic ratios, and vascularity values within histologically defined prostate tumors with those in nontumor tissue to determine which functional parameter or combination of parameters is best for differentiating tumor from nontumor tissue. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty patients due for prostatectomy underwent endorectal MRI at 1.5 T. Transverse T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, 2D chemical shift, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images were acquired. After prostatectomy, the gland was sectioned transversely. Fresh slices and stained whole-mount sections with histologically defined tumor outlines were photographed. The tumor outlines were mapped onto images, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), choline-to-citrate (Cho/cit) ratio, and vascularity of the histologically defined tumor, normal peripheral zone, and central gland were quantitatively measured. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (Az) was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of parameter combinations in cancer detection. RESULTS. In tumor regions larger than 1 cm2, the Cho/cit ratio was higher in tumor than in nontumor tissue (p < 0.001), in the peripheral zone alone (p = 0.007), and in the central gland alone (p = 0.005). ADC was lower and tumor vascularity greater in tumor than in nontumor tissue (ADC, p = 0.003; initial area under the gadolinium plasma concentration–time curve [initial gadolinium AUC], p = 0.012; forward rate constant [Ktrans], p = 0.011; return rate constant [kep], p = 0.036). No single parameter had a significantly greater Az (ADC, 0.71; Cho/cit ratio, 0.79; initial gadolinium AUC, 0.60; Ktrans, 0.62; kep, 0.65). Pairs of parameters, however, did increase Az: ADC and initial gadolinium AUC (Az = 0.94) versus ADC (p = 0.001) and initial gadolinium AUC (p < 0.001); ADC and Cho/cit ratio (Az = 0.94) versus ADC (p = 0.001) and Cho/cit ratio (not significant); and Cho/cit ratio and initial gadolinium AUC (Az = 0.88) versus Cho/cit ratio (not significant) and initial gadolinium AUC (p < 0.001). All three functional techniques together had an Az of 0.95, showing no further improvement. CONCLUSION. The combination of two functional parameters is associated with significant improvement in prostate cancer detection over use of any parameter alone. Use of a third parameter does not increase the rate of detection.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
Uncontrolled Keywords: diffusion, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, perfusion, prostate, spectroscopy
Publisher: American Roentgen Ray Society
ISSN: 0361-803X
Funders: Cancer Research UK
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 06:51

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