Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Airway function, inflammation and pulmonary histopathology following parainfluenza-3 virus infection.

Chidgey, Sharon Michelle 2007. Airway function, inflammation and pulmonary histopathology following parainfluenza-3 virus infection. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.

[img] PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Download (39MB)

Abstract

Human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (A and B) cause approximately 39-40% of all acute respiratory infections in infants and children for which there is no effective therapy. Firstly, this thesis was aimed at ascertaining a suitable guinea pig model of PIV-3 infection by determining the most efficient route of virus application. Secondly, to ascertain if a temporal association may be established during the time course of infection (Day 1-40) by measuring the following parameters: body weight, rectal temperature, airway function (sGaw), airways reactivity to inhaled histamine, inflammatory cell infiltration to the lungs measured by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet lung weights, inflammatory markers (nitric oxide and total protein levels), lung histological analysis and recovery of the virus from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Further to this, experiments were also designed to determine the impact of the glucocorticoid, dexsamethasone (in vivo and in vitro) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram (in vivo). Lastly, this study ascertained the effect of pre-sensitisation with antigen on the responses of antigen in PIV-3 infected guinea pigs. These investigations have shown guinea pigs to be a suitable model for PIV-3 infection and intranasal inoculation is the most efficient route of virus application. In addition, these investigations also established a temporal association between the time course of PIV-3 infection including airway reactivity to histamine, airway function (sGBW), airways reactivity to inhaled histamine, inflammatory cell infiltration, wet lung weights, inflammatory markers (nitric oxide and total protein levels), pulmonary histopathology and recovery of the virus from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pre-treatment of PIV-3 infected guinea pigs with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram (in vitro) ameliorated the inflammatory response and airway hyperreactivity. Unlike rolipram, dexamethasone also reduced viral titre (in vivo and in vitro), supporting a role for the anti-viral effects of dexamethasone. The anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone are well known and it has been speculated by other authors which maybe caused by decreased viral receptors on the epithelial cells via inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. Finally, in this study PTV-3 infection, enhanced the effect of pre-allergen sensitisation, which may arise from increased permeability of the airway mucosa to allergens, due to damage of the respiratory epithelium and increased recruitment of dendritic cells. In summary, this thesis has established a clearly defined efficacy of dexamethasone use in the treatment of PIV-3 infection.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
ISBN: 9781303181870
Funders: BBSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2018 23:33
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/55663

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics