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Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

Abdul Hamid, Haziah 2012. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank that has been designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations were then undertaken using the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Further analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the surge arrester operation during the MSCDN energisation, which causes steep voltage change at the reactor terminal. (ii) Second, the nonuniform voltage distribution, resulting in high stresses across the top inter-turn windings. (iii) Third, the rapid rate-of-change of voltage in the assumed worst-case reactor winding location. This is accompanied by a high dielectric (displacement) current through the inter-turn winding insulation. Work within this investigation proposes that a synergistic effect of high electric field and high dielectric current occurring at worst energisation, followed by the thermal effects of steady state operation contributes to the failure of air-core reactors used on the 400 kV MSCDN.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mechanically switched capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN), Shunt Reactor, Switching Transients, Air-core reactor, Average electric field
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2018 17:14

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