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New developments in castrate-resistant prostate cancer

Shore, N., Mason, Malcolm David and de Reijke, Th. M. 2012. New developments in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. British Journal of Urology International 109 (s6) , pp. 22-32. 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11217.x

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Abstract

Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) occurs when disease progresses in the presence of castrate levels of androgens and remains sensitive to further hormonal manipulation. For many years the treatment of CRPC was limited to the use of docetaxel for metastatic disease. However, this has recently changed with the approval of several new agents. Sipuleucel-T, an immunotherapeutic vaccine, is now available in the US for patients with non-metastatic CRPC and abiraterone, an oral enzyme inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, as well as cabazitaxel, a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic, have been approved for the treatment of metastatic CRPC. Also, denosumab, a subcutaneous antibody, is now an option for the treatment of patients with CRPC with bone metastases, in addition to zoledronic acid, an intravenous bisphosphonate. Further treatment advances for metastatic CRPC therapeutics are in late stage phase III development. These include therapies affecting the androgen receptor (MDV3100) as well as additional immune-based therapeutics, PROSTVAC and ipilimumab. A broad range of agents is also emerging under the term targeted therapies. The endothelin-A receptor antagonist zibotentan, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors dasatinib, sorafenib and cabozantinib, the anti-angiogenic agent aflibercept, and the clusterin inhibitor custirsen, are all currently being tested for efficacy in metastatic CRPC. The mechanism of action of these and other promising agents are discussed alongside current therapeutic options and their potential place in the treatment landscape for CRPC is considered.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
Uncontrolled Keywords: anti-androgens, CRPC, cytotoxic therapy, immunotherapy, secondary hormone therapy, targeted therapy
Publisher: Wiley and Blackwell
ISSN: 1464-4096
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 04:38
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/42156

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