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Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases differentially regulate the lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-12 in macrophages: Leishmania phosphoglycans subvert macrophage IL-12 production by targeting ERK MAP kinase

Feng, Gui-Jie, Goodridge, Helen S., Harnett, Margaret M., Wei, Xiao-Qing, Nikolaev, Andrei V., Higson, Adrian P. and Liew, Foo Y. 1999. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases differentially regulate the lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-12 in macrophages: Leishmania phosphoglycans subvert macrophage IL-12 production by targeting ERK MAP kinase. The Journal of Immunology 163 (12) , pp. 6403-6412.

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Abstract

Macrophage activation by cytokines or microbial products such as LPS results in the induction and release of several key immune effector molecules including NO and IL-12. These have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of immunity to intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of these effector molecules are not fully understood. We now show that the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play differential roles in the regulation of LPS-stimulated inducible NO synthase and IL-12 gene expression. In macrophages, LPS stimulates the simultaneous activation of all three classes of MAP kinases, ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, albeit with differential activation kinetics. However, studies using inhibitors selective for ERK (PD98059) and p38 (SB203580) show that while p38 plays an essential role in the induction of inducible NO synthase, ERK MAP kinases play only a minor role in promoting NO generation. In contrast, while p38 promotes induction of IL-12 (p40) mRNA, ERK activation suppresses LPS-mediated IL-12 transcription. The biological relevance of these regulatory signals is demonstrated by our finding that Leishmania lipophosphoglycans, which promote parasite survival, act by stimulating ERK MAP kinase to inhibit macrophage IL-12 production. Thus, as ERK and p38 MAP kinases differentially regulate the induction of the macrophage effector molecules, inducible NO synthase and IL-12, these kinases are potential targets not only for the development of novel strategies to combat intracellular pathogens but also for therapeutic immunomodulation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Publisher: American Association of Immunologists
ISSN: 0022-1767
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 04:16
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/35667

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