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Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds

Abergel, A., Ade, Peter A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Balbi, A., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Bernard, J. P., Bersanelli, M., Bhatia, R., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Cabella, P., Cardoso, J. F., Catalano, A., Cayón, L., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, L. Y., Chiang, C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Gasperis, G., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. M., Désert, F. X., Dickinson, C., Dobashi, K., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Dörl, U., Douspis, M., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giardino, G., Giraud-Héraud, Y., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Guillet, V., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Hoyland, R. J., Huffenberger, K. M., Jaffe, A. H., Jones, A., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knox, L., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. M., Lasenby, A., Laureijs, R. J., Lawrence, C. R., Leach, S., Leonardi, R., Leroy, C., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., MacTavish, C. J., Maffei, B., Mandolesi, N., Mann, R., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Matthai, F., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, Dipak, Murphy, A., Naselsky, P., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Osborne, S., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Poutanen, T., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. L., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Renault, C., Ricciardi, S., Riller, T., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, P., Smoot, G. F., Starck, J. L., Stivoli, F., Stolyarov, V., Sudiwala, Rashmikant, Sygnet, J. F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Torre, J. P., Tristram, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Verstraete, L., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Vittorio, N., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. 2011. Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds. Astronomy and Astrophysics 536 , A25. 10.1051/0004-6361/201116483

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Abstract

Planck allows unbiased mapping of Galactic sub-millimetre and millimetre emission from the most diffuse regions to the densest parts of molecular clouds. We present an early analysis of the Taurus molecular complex, on line-of-sight-averaged data and without component separation. The emission spectrum measured by Planck and IRAS can be fitted pixel by pixel using a single modified blackbody. Some systematic residuals are detected at 353 GHz and 143 GHz, with amplitudes around −7% and +13%, respectively, indicating that the measured spectra are likely more complex than a simple modified blackbody. Significant positive residuals are also detected in the molecular regions and in the 217 GHz and 100 GHz bands, mainly caused by the contribution of the J = 2 → 1 and J = 1 → 0 (12)CO and (13)CO emission lines. We derive maps of the dust temperature T, the dust spectral emissivity index β, and the dust optical depth at 250 μm τ(250). The temperature map illustrates the cooling of the dust particles in thermal equilibrium with the incident radiation field, from 16 − 17 K in the diffuse regions to 13 − 14 K in the dense parts. The distribution of spectral indices is centred at 1.78, with a standard deviation of 0.08 and a systematic error of 0.07. We detect a significant T − β anti-correlation. The dust optical depth map reveals the spatial distribution of the column density of the molecular complex from the densest molecular regions to the faint diffuse regions. We use near-infrared extinction and Hi data at 21-cm to perform a quantitative analysis of the spatial variations of the measured dust optical depth at 250 μm per hydrogen atom τ(250)/N(H). We report an increase of τ(250)/N(H) by a factor of about 2 between the atomic phase and the molecular phase, which has a strong impact on the equilibrium temperature of the dust particles.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Uncontrolled Keywords: dust, extinction / ISM: structure / evolution / infrared: ISM / ISM: individual objects: Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud
Additional Information: Pdf uploaded in accordance with publisher's policy at http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/0004-6361/ (accessed 16/04/2014)
Publisher: EDP Sciences
ISSN: 0004-6361
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 04:08
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/33406

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