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Complement Abnormalities in Acquired Lipodystrophy Revisited

Savage, D. B., Semple, R. K., Clatworthy, M. R., Lyons, P. A., Morgan, Bryan Paul, Cochran, E. K., Gorden, P., Raymond-Barker, P., Murgatroyd, P. R., Adams, C., Scobie, I., Mufti, G. J., Alexander, G. J. M., Thiru, S., Murano, I., Cinti, S., Chaudhry, A. N., Smith, K. G. C. and O'Rahilly, S. 2009. Complement Abnormalities in Acquired Lipodystrophy Revisited. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 94 (1) , pp. 10-16. 10.1210/jc.2008-1703

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Abstract

Context: Lipodystrophy is a heterogeneous condition characterized by an inherited or acquired deficiency in the number of adipocytes required for the storage of energy as triglycerides. Acquired lipodystrophy is frequently associated with other autoimmune disorders. One well-studied form is characterized by the selective loss of upper body fat in association with activation of the alternative complement pathway by C3 nephritic factor, low complement factor C3, and mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. Objective: We now describe an immunologically distinct form of acquired generalized lipodystrophy, with evidence of activation of the classical complement pathway (low C4) and autoimmune hepatitis. Patients and Research Design: Three unrelated patients with acquired lipodystrophy and low complement C4 levels are described. In vitro analysis of the complement pathway was undertaken to determine the reason for the low C4 complement levels. Biopsies were obtained from liver, bone marrow, and adipose tissue for histological analysis. Results: All three patients manifested near-total lipodystrophy, chronic hepatitis with autoimmune features, and low C4 complement levels. Additional autoimmune diseases, including severe hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thyroid disease, and polyneuropathy, were variably present. Detailed studies of complement pathways suggested constitutive classical pathway activation. Conclusions: Although the previously described syndrome, which typically results in a cephalad pattern of partial lipodystrophy, results from activation of the alternative complement pathway, this form, in which lipodystrophy is generalized, is associated with activation of the classical pathway. Future therapeutic approaches to these disorders may benefit from being tailored to their distinct immunopathogenesis.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Publisher: The Endocrine Society
ISSN: 0021-972X
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 03:56
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/29439

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