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Oxidative addition of the imidazolium cation to zerovalent Ni, Pd, and Pt: a combined density functional and experimental study

McGuinness, David S., Cavell, Kingsley John, Yates, Brian F., Skelton, Brian W. and White, Allan H. 2001. Oxidative addition of the imidazolium cation to zerovalent Ni, Pd, and Pt: a combined density functional and experimental study. Journal of the American Chemical Society 123 (34) , pp. 8317-8328. 10.1021/ja010628p

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Oxidative addition of different imidazolium cations to zerovalent group 10 metals, to afford heterocyclic carbene complexes, has been investigated by both density functional theory (DFT) and experimental studies. The theoretical analysis shows that addition of imidazoliums to Pt0 and Ni0 is more exothermic than to Pd0, and Ni0 is predicted to react with a much lower barrier than either Pt0 or Pd0. Strongly basic supporting ligands on the metal, as well as cis-chelating ligands, increase the exothermicity of the reaction and also lower the activation barrier. The addition of 2-H imidazoliums is easier and more exothermic than addition of 2-alkylimidazoliums, and a halo-imidazolium is expected to further lower the barrier to oxidative addition and increase the exothermicity. The DFT results show that all three of the metals should be able to oxidatively add imidazolium cations under appropriate conditions. Experimental studies confirmed that oxidative addition is possible, and a number of Pt− and Pd−carbene complexes were prepared via oxidative addition of imidazolium salts to M0 precursors. Most significantly, oxidative addition of 2-H azolium salts was found to readily occur, and the reaction of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with Pt(PPh3)2 and Pt(PCy3)2 affords [PtH(dmiy)(PPh3)2]BF4 (10) and [PtH(dmiy)(PCy3)2]BF4 (11), while reaction between 3,4-dimethylthiazolium tetrafluoroborate and Pt(PCy3)2 yields [PtH(dmty)(PCy3)2]BF4 (12) (dmiy = 1,3-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene, dmty = 3,4-dimethylthiazolin-2-ylidene). Addition of 2-iodo-1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate to Pt(PPh3)4 or Pd(dcype)(dba) yields [PtI(tmiy)(PPh3)2]BF4 (9) and [PdI(tmiy)(dcype)]BF4 (14), respectively (tmiy = 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazolin-2-ylidene, dcype = 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane)). X-ray crystal structures are reported for complexes 9 and 11 (cis and trans). These studies clearly show for the first time that oxidative addition of imidazolium and thiazolium cations is possible, and the results are discussed in terms of the ramifications for catalysis in imidazolium-based ionic liquids with both carbene-based and non-carbene-based complexes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Cardiff Catalysis Institute (CCI)
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 00027863
Last Modified: 19 Mar 2016 22:03

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