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Use of two-photon lithography with a negative resist and processing to realise cylindrical magnetic nanowires

Askey, Joe, Hunt, Matthew Oliver, Langbein, Wolfgang and Ladak, Sam 2020. Use of two-photon lithography with a negative resist and processing to realise cylindrical magnetic nanowires. Nanomaterials 10 (3) , 429. 10.3390/nano10030429

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Abstract

Cylindrical magnetic nanowires have been shown to exhibit a vast array of fascinating 10 spin textures, including chiral domains, skyrmion tubes and topologically protected domain walls 11 that harbor Bloch points. Here we present a novel methodology that utilizes two-photon 12 lithography in order to realize tailored 3D porous templates upon prefabricated electrodes. 13 Electrochemical deposition is used to fill these porous templates, and reactive ion etching is used to 14 free the encased magnetic nanowires. The nanowires are found to have a diameter of 420nm, length 15 of 2.82m and surface roughness of 7.6nm. Magnetic force microscopy in an externally applied field 16 suggests a complex spiraling magnetization state, which demagnetizes via the production of 17 vortices of alternating chirality. Detailed micro-magnetic simulations confirm such a state and a 18 qualitative agreement is found with respect to the switching of experimental nanowires. 19 Surprisingly, simulations also indicate the presence of a Bloch point as a metastable state during the 20 switching process. Our work provides a new means to realize 3D magnetic nanowires of controlled 21 geometry and calculations suggest a further reduction in diameter to sub-200nm will be possible, 22 providing access to a regime of ultrafast domain wall motion.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2079-4991
Funders: EPSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 25 February 2020
Date of Acceptance: 22 February 2020
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2020 15:09
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/129947

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