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Baseband linearization schemes for high efficiency power amplifiers

Wang, Guofeng 2019. Baseband linearization schemes for high efficiency power amplifiers. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

High efficiency and high linearity microwave power amplifiers (PAs) are a critical element in modern wireless applications. Over recent years, modern communica-tions systems and the complex modulated signals they use have presented signif-icant challenges in terms of maintaining acceptable efficiency and achieving the high degrees of linearity required in microwave radio frequency power amplifier (RFPA) designs. The next ‘big’ challenge is the deployment of the fifth-generation (5G) mobile network, which is scheduled for commercial launch in 2020. Although the specification for 5G is not completely known at this point, the expectations in terms of what 5G will bring most certainly are; including 1000x more capacity, less than 1ms latency and 100x network energy efficiency. New 5G systems will need to provide higher spectral efficiency, wide and fragmented signal spectra and dy-namic spectrum access (DSA). As a result, the waveforms used in 5G systems will be characterised by high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and high bandwidth, especially for high data rate applications, which brings additional challenges in terms of achieving system efficiency and linearity. Digital Predistortion (DPD) has been widely and very successfully applied in modern communication systems to linearize PAs and meet system require-ments. However, as the signal bandwidth widens and carrier aggregation be-comes commonplace in 5G system, higher complexity DPD algorithms and an Abstract II increased number of associated parameters will be required. This will inevitably result in a more complex DPD systems with higher power consumption and overall, lower system efficiency. This is especially problematic when systems advance into massive multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios, where the distrib-uted systems are smaller in size and massive in number. The research work in this thesis starts by analysing the different nonlinear distortion mechanisms present in the typical microwave power transistor devices that would be deployed in an RFPA within a 5G system. A tunable analytical device model is established to investigate the individual contributions of key nonlinear el-ements in the device. A number of important observations, such as “sweet-spots”, sideband asymmetry and drive dependent optimum baseband termination have been discovered and analysed in detail. Using the developed analytical model, a linearity optimization strategy in circuit design has been discussed and applied to a commercially available and widely used nonlinear device model CGH60015D from Cree (now Wolfspeed). For the first time, a systematic study of all main non-linear components has been done and the interaction between these components has been discussed. In the second part of the thesis, a pair of novel system-level envelope do-main linearization techniques are presented and analysed. They are applied at the input node and output node of the power amplifier, respectively. The envelop line-arization techniques have been demonstrated with both the analytical model, de-veloped in this thesis, and the nonlinear device model CGH60015D. The Abstract III advantages of envelope linearization has been discussed as well as the challenges such an approach presents. The Linearizability of a system, both in terms of circuit design and lineariza-tion techniques are discussed. In fact, linearity and linearizability of power amplifi-ers forms the central thread that runs through this thesis together with linearity, which provides guidance for a top-to-bottom level PA linearization strategy.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Completion
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Power amplifier; Baseband; Linearization; Circuit optimization; Baseband injection; Predistortion.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 15 January 2020
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2020 11:27
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/128535

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