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A combined basalt and peridotite perspective on 14 million years of melt generation at the Atlantis Bank segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge: evidence for temporal changes in mantle dynamics?

Coogan, Laurence A., Thompson, G. M., MacLeod, Christopher John, Dick, H. J. B., Edwards, S. J., Scheirer, A. Horsford and Barry, Tiffany Louise 2004. A combined basalt and peridotite perspective on 14 million years of melt generation at the Atlantis Bank segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge: evidence for temporal changes in mantle dynamics? Chemical Geology 207 (1-2) , pp. 13-30. 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.01.016

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Abstract

Little is known about temporal variations in melt generation and extraction at midocean ridges largely due to the paucity of sampling along flow lines. Here we present new whole-rock major and trace element data, and mineral and glass major element data, for 71 basaltic samples (lavas and dykes) and 23 peridotites from the same ridge segment (the Atlantis Bank segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge). These samples span an age range of almost 14 My and, in combination with the large amount of published data from this area, allow temporal variations in melting processes to be investigated. Basalts show systematic changes in incompatible trace element ratios with the older samples (from ∼8–14 Ma) having more depleted incompatible trace element ratios than the younger ones. There is, however, no corresponding change in peridotite compositions. Peridotites come from the top of the melting column, where the extent of melting is highest, suggesting that the maximum degree of melting did not change over this interval of time. New and published Nd isotopic ratios of basalts, dykes and gabbros from this segment suggest that the average source composition has been approximately constant over this time interval. These data are most readily explained by a model in which the average source composition and temperature have not changed over the last 14 My, but the dynamics of mantle flow (active-to-passive) or melt extraction (less-to-more efficient extraction from the ‘wings’ of the melting column) has changed significantly. This hypothesised change in mantle dynamics occurs at roughly the same time as a change from a period of detachment faulting to ‘normal’ crustal accretion. We speculate that active mantle flow may impart sufficient shear stress on the base of the lithosphere to rotate the regional stress field and promote the formation of low angle normal faults.

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Ocean Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mantle dynamics; Melt extraction; Atlantis Bank; ODP Hole 735B; Abyssal peridotites
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0009-2541
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 02:51
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/12744

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