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Facile amine termination of nanodiamond particles and their surface reaction dynamics

Ahmed, Ashek-I, Gines, Laia, Mandal, Soumen, Song, Chang-You, Williams, Oliver A., Sarmiento, Micahella N. and Cheng, Chia-Liang 2019. Facile amine termination of nanodiamond particles and their surface reaction dynamics. ACS Omega 4 (16) , pp. 16715-16723. 10.1021/acsomega.9b00776

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Abstract

Nanodiamond synthesized by the detonation method is a composite of sp3/sp2 carbon structures; amorphous and disordered-sp2 carbons populate the surface of a sp3 diamond core lattice. Because of the production process, various elemental impurities such as N, O, H, and so forth are inherent in interstitial sites or the surface carbon (sp2/amorphous) network. Herein, the reaction dynamics on the surface of ultradisperse diamond (UDD) due to the surface transformation or reconstruction during annealing in vacuum with temperatures ranging from ambient to 800 °C is described. In situ measurement of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis shows that low-temperature (<500 °C) annealing of UDD in vacuum results in isonitrile/isocyanide (−N═C:) and nitrile functionalization (−C≡N) on the surface. At temperatures ∼500 °C, the surface hydrogenation of UDD is initiated. During annealing at 780–800 °C, the nitrile group (−C≡N) is reduced to the primary amine (NH2), and isonitrile (−N═C:) turns it to be in the saturated () structure. On exposure to air, the obtained isonitrile is transformed to an N-formyl derivative (Aryl/R–NH–CHO) structure via hydrolysis. This study provides a fundamental insight into the surface reactive profile of UDD which could lead to facile surface functionalization properties and their applications in various fields such as biomedical, biosensing, drug delivery, epoxy materials process, tribology, and possibly in cyano (−C≡N/–N═C:) chemistry.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 2470-1343
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 13 November 2019
Date of Acceptance: 19 September 2019
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2019 11:15
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/126764

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