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Antioxidants and atherosclerosis: mechanistic aspects

Malekmohammad, K., Sewell, Robert and Rafieian-Kopaei, M. 2019. Antioxidants and atherosclerosis: mechanistic aspects. Biomolecules 9 (8) , 301. 10.3390/biom9080301

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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is a major cause of coronary heart disease and stroke in humans. It is characterized by intimal plaques and cholesterol accumulation in arterial walls. The side effects of currently prescribed synthetic drugs and their high cost in the treatment of atherosclerosis has prompted the use of alternative herbal medicines, dietary supplements and antioxidants associated with fewer adverse effects for the treatment of atherosclerosis. This article aims to evaluate the activity mechanisms of antioxidants on atherosclerosis along with a review of the most prevalent medicinal plants employed against this multifactorial disease. The wide-ranging information in this review article was obtained from scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Natural and synthetic antioxidants have a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis through different mechanisms. These include: inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inhibition of cytokine secretion, prevention of atherosclerotic plaque formation and platelet aggregation, preclusion of mononuclear cell infiltration, improvement of endothelial dysfunction and vasodilation, augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, modulation of expression of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells and suppression of foam cell formation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Uncontrolled Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, LDL oxidation, Antioxidant, Medicinal plants
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2218-273X
Funders: None
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 26 September 2019
Date of Acceptance: 17 June 2019
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2019 09:48

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