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Accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia by tooth germ sonography

Faschingbauer, F, Wohlfart, S, Goecke, T, Köninger, A, Stepan, H, Gallinat, R, Morris, S, Bücher, K, Clarke, Angus, Beckmann, MW, Schneider, H and Hammersen, J 2018. Accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia by tooth germ sonography. European Journal of Ultrasound / Ultraschall in der Medizin 39 (S01) , S25. 10.1055/s-0038-1670428

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Objective: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), a developmental disorder characterized by malformation of hair, teeth, and sweat glands, results from defective ectodysplasin A1 (EDA1) caused by EDA mutations. Inability to sweat, the major problem of XLHED which can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia, has been shown to be amenable to intrauterine therapy with recombinant EDA1. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of tooth germ sonography to identify affected fetuses in pregnant women with EDA mutations. Methods: Tooth germ sonography was performed in 38 cases at 10 study sites between gestational weeks 18 and 28. XLHED was diagnosed if fewer than six tooth germs were detected in mandible and/or maxilla. In all subjects, diagnoses were verified postnatally by EDA sequencing and/or clinical findings (standardized clinical assessments of hair, sweating, and dentition; orthopantomograms). Estimated weights of 12 affected male fetuses and postnatal weight gain of 12 boys with XLHED were assessed using appropriate growth charts. Results: In 19 of 38 sonografic examinations of 23 male and 13 female fetuses, a prenatal diagnosis of XLHED was made. The diagnosis proved to be correct in 37 cases; one affected male fetus was missed. Specificity and positive predictive value were both 100%. Tooth counting by clinical assessment corresponded well with radiografic findings. We observed no weight deficits of subjects with XLHED in utero but occasionally during infancy. Conclusions: Tooth germ sonography is highly specific and reliable in establishing a prenatal diagnosis of XLHED.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Thieme Publishing / Georg Thieme Verlag
ISSN: 0172-4614
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 21 January 2019
Date of Acceptance: 21 January 2019
Last Modified: 12 Mar 2020 21:49

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