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Anti-inflammatory actions of nutraceuticals: Novel emerging therapies for atherosclerosis?

Moss, Joe 2018. Anti-inflammatory actions of nutraceuticals: Novel emerging therapies for atherosclerosis? PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related events such as myocardial infarction and stroke remain the world’s leading cause of death. The incidence of CVD-related events is expected to rise in the future due to the increase in the global prevalence of obesity and diabetes, in addition to less economically developed countries adopting a western style diet. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is the underlying cause of CVD and characterised by the build-up of fatty deposits within the walls of medium and large arteries. Macrophages play critical roles during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including the uptake of modified low-density lipoproteins to form foam cells. CardioWise is a dietary supplement developed by Cultech Limited which contains the anti-inflammatory compounds ω-3 PUFAs, flavanols and phytosterols. The aim of this project was to assess the cardiovascular protective effects of CardioWise and its individual components in isolation using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Results Foam cell formation was attenuated in human THP-1 macrophages treated with CardioWise. In addition, CardioWise reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression, monocyte recruitment and M1 macrophage phenotype polarisation. CardioWise was also found to increase HDL cholesterol levels and attenuate circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in wild type mice. Further investigation identified (+)-catechin within CardioWise as a key beneficial molecule to explore in greater detail. In vitro experiments demonstrated that catechin reduced monocyte migration and reactive oxygen species generation. Wild type mice treated with catechin were also found to receive anti-atherogenic benefits such as increased HDL cholesterol levels and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Conclusion The findings of this study show that CardioWise and catechin are capable of exerting strong anti-inflammatory effects on several stages of atherosclerosis disease development in vitro. Furthermore initial in vivo studies using wild type mice revealed that both treatments are also capable of exerting several cardiovascular protective effects. Reasons for these beneficial effects have been proposed in this thesis and future studies outlined.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Acceptance
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Funders: Cardiff University, Cultech Limited
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 May 2018
Date of Acceptance: February 2018
Last Modified: 31 May 2019 01:49
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/111849

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