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Protective paraspeckle hyper-assembly downstream of TDP-43 loss of function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Shelkovnikova, Tatyana A., Kukharsky, Michail S., An, Haiyan, Dimasi, Pasquale, Alexeeva, Svetlana, Shabir, Osman, Heath, Paul R. and Buchman, Vladimir L. 2018. Protective paraspeckle hyper-assembly downstream of TDP-43 loss of function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Molecular Neurodegeneration 13 , 30. 10.1186/s13024-018-0263-7

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Abstract

Background Paraspeckles are subnuclear bodies assembled on a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1. Their enhanced formation in spinal neurons of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients has been reported but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The majority of ALS cases are characterized by TDP-43 proteinopathy. In current study we aimed to establish whether and how TDP-43 pathology may augment paraspeckle assembly. Methods Paraspeckle formation in human samples was analysed by RNA-FISH and laser capture microdissection followed by qRT-PCR. Mechanistic studies were performed in stable cell lines, mouse primary neurons and human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. Loss and gain of function for TDP-43 and other microRNA pathway factors were modelled by siRNA-mediated knockdown and protein overexpression. Results We show that de novo paraspeckle assembly in spinal neurons and glial cells is a hallmark of both sporadic and familial ALS with TDP-43 pathology. Mechanistically, loss of TDP-43 but not its cytoplasmic accumulation or aggregation augments paraspeckle assembly in cultured cells. TDP-43 is a component of the microRNA machinery, and recently, paraspeckles have been shown to regulate pri-miRNA processing. Consistently, downregulation of core protein components of the miRNA pathway also promotes paraspeckle assembly. In addition, depletion of these proteins or TDP-43 results in accumulation of endogenous dsRNA and activation of type I interferon response which also stimulates paraspeckle formation. We demonstrate that human or mouse neurons in vitro lack paraspeckles, but a synthetic dsRNA is able to trigger their de novo formation. Finally, paraspeckles are protective in cells with compromised microRNA/dsRNA metabolism, and their assembly can be promoted by a small-molecule microRNA enhancer. Conclusions Our study establishes possible mechanisms behind paraspeckle hyper-assembly in ALS and suggests their utility as therapeutic targets in ALS and other diseases with abnormal metabolism of microRNA and dsRNA.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1750-1326
Related URLs:
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 25 May 2018
Date of Acceptance: 25 May 2018
Last Modified: 06 Apr 2020 16:15
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/111765

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