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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in phenotypically-similar neurogenetic conditions: Turner syndrome and the RASopathies

Green, Tamar, Naylor, Paige and Davies, William 2017. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in phenotypically-similar neurogenetic conditions: Turner syndrome and the RASopathies. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 9 (25) , pp. 794-802. 10.1186/s11689-017-9205-x

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Abstract

Background: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a common 25 neurodevelopmental disorder. There has been extensive clinical and basic research in the field 26 of ADHD over the past 20 years, but the mechanisms underlying ADHD risk are multifactorial, 27 complex and heterogeneous and, as yet, are poorly-defined. In this review, we argue that one 28 approach to address this challenge is to study well-defined disorders to provide insights into 29 potential biological pathways that may be involved in idiopathic ADHD. 30 Main body: To address this premise we selected two neurogenetic conditions that are 31 associated with significantly increased ADHD risk: Turner syndrome and the RASopathies (of 32 which Noonan syndrome and neurofibromatosis 1 are the best-defined with regard to ADHD33 related phenotypes). These syndromes were chosen for two main reasons: first, because 34 intellectual functioning is relatively preserved and second, because they are strikingly 35 phenotypically-similar but are etiologically-distinct. We review the cognitive, behavioral, 36 neural and cellular phenotypes associated with these conditions and examine their relevance as 37 a model for idiopathic ADHD. Conclusion: We conclude by discussing current and future opportunities in the clinical and 39 basic research of these conditions, which, in turn, may shed light upon the biological pathways 40 underlying idiopathic ADHD.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Medicine
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (NMHRI)
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Neurofibromatosis Type 1; Noonan Syndrome, RASopathies; Turner syndrome; X chromosome
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1866-1947
Funders: Medical Research Council
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 May 2017
Date of Acceptance: 18 May 2017
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2019 13:46
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/100669

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