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Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

Lin, Shanshan, Jin, Y., Fu, L., Quan, C. and Yang, Yuesuo 2009. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials 165 (1-3) , pp. 1083-1090. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.106

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Abstract

Excess biomass produced within the degradation processes of organic pollutants is creating environmental challenges. The gravel contact oxidation reactor (GCOR) filled with crushed stone globular aggregates as carriers, has been demonstrated capable of reducing the excess sludge effectively in some pilot and small-scale engineering studies. In order to evaluate the variation and structure of the microbial community and their functions to excess sludge reduction in GCOR, a conventional activated sludge reactor (ASR) was studied as a comparison. The 16S rDNA library of the universal bacteria was constructed, Shannon's diversity index (H) and Species evenness (E) were calculated with distance-based operational taxonomic unit and richness (DOTUR) for microbial diversity. Real-time quantity PCR and optical microscope were used for absolute bacterial DNA concentration and eukarya identification, respectively. Meanwhile, the suspended solid index in GCOR and ASR was detected for assessing the excess sludge production. The results indicated that the most abundant bacteria in GCOR were those related to the β-Proteobacteria group, then γ-Proteobacteria and to Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriode (CFB). In the ASR samples major bacteria were in the closest match with γ-Proteobacteria, then β-Proteobacteria and CFB. Shannon's index (H) was higher (3.41) for diversity of bacteria extracted from the carrier samples in GCOR than that (2.71) from the sludge sample in ASR. Species evenness (E) for the isolates from GCOR and ASR samples was 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Comparison of the universal bacteria population in GCOR and ASR shows that the total bacterial DNA concentration on the GCOR carriers were 8.98 × 105 μg/μl, twice that in ASR of 4.67 × 105 μg/μl under normal operation of two reactors. But the MLSS in GCOR was only 4.5 mg/L, 25 times less than that in ASR of 115.4 mg/L. The most representative eukarya were protozoa both in GCOR (15 no. per 20 ml) and in ASR (15 no. per 20 ml); the next abundant group was attachment plants 10 no. per 20 ml in GCOR and 4 no. per 20 ml in ASR, respectively. Rotifers and copepoda belonging to metazoan were only present in GCOR (8 no. per 20 ml for both rotifers and copepoda). The microbial diversity and population difference both in the GCOR carriers and ASR sludge indicated that the diverse microbes, a large amount of biomass forming longer microbial food chains attached on the carriers may be the main functions for the excess sludge reduction in GCOR.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Ocean Sciences
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Microbial diversity; Biomass population; 16S rDNA library; qPCR; Excess sludge reduction; Gravel contact oxidation reactor (GCOR)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0304-3894
Last Modified: 19 Mar 2016 22:16
URI: http://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/10009

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